is a kind of inductive logic, a way of thinking which is based on some
every idea, every project contains some valuable elements (the essence,
"genuine kernel") The integration technique consists of two steps:
(2) generally the
concrete form, the expression of an idea is too generalized, and the form
of a project is too concrete. We call this kind of exaggeration an eduction.
(3) every conflict
of ideas/projects is a false conflict, as it is due rarher to the
eduction than to the kernel. So each conflict can be resolved.
the idea/project towards its essence. We call this a retroduction.
Some retroductions can be done by verbal interaction. But for many things
(e.g. art, sexuality) verbal interaction isn't enough. Then experiential
interaction is necessary, i.e. the persons have to experience what the
other means. A (relative) check of the successfulness of an integration can be performed:
(2) the retroduced
elements can be combined into something more valuable than each
separate contribution. As long as the combination is not smooth, more reformulation/retroduction
(1) every available separate idea/project is integrated. The advantages of an integration process are multiple:
(2) the separate
contributions can be deduced from the integration by simplifying its context,
so that some nuances can be dropped. This is a reduction.
(3) the authors
of their separate contributions have the intuition that the
essence of their idea is totally respected, albeit reformulated. Of course,
this intuition can change over time, necessitating a new integration, starting
with a more appropriate reformulation.
integrative results include the advantages of each contribution.
If not, then the integration process was insufficient. Schemes
(2) no author feels
frustrated (except the ones who thought to own the Ultimate Truth)
(3) an integrative
theory is more plausible than the plausibility of each separate
contribution. When many, even vague, contributions are integrated, preferably
from different contexts of experience, the plausibility of the integrative
view approaches scientific certainty. This makes from integration the scientific
method of preference for fields where the exact method can't be applied
by lack of measurability. Without integration, theories from non-exact
scientific fields have the same plausibility as uncontrolled phantasies.
Integration of the essences
(1) The Holidays
He: Honey, I'd like to spend the next holidays at the seaside (2) The School Boy
Darling! I just dreamed about spending them in the mountains.
we have an unresolvable conflict, once again.
He: In fact,
I'd like to take holidays in a place where nature is open. I'm working
all year in a closed computer office.
She: In fact,
I'd like to take holidays in a place where there are not too many people.
I'm working all year at a hospital reception desk.
desires are rather easy to combine:)
let's spend our holidays at the countryside: open fields, few people.
is a very lousy and unintelligent pupil. He's continuously disturbing the
class. He's due to sack. (3) Newton's Law
of the Addition of Speeds
the contrary, Sam is a very interested pupil. He only asks intelligent
questions. If someone has to pass to the next level, it's him.
questioning each other's teaching and judging capacities, they eventually
read this webpage, and reformulate:)
seems to be uninterested in my national history course. He tries to compensate
by disturbing the class.
seems to be very intersted in my difficult mathematics course. He doesn't
stop asking for more.
is a high gifted boy, and our courses are too simple for him. Let's
raise him two years, just to normalize his intellectual challenge.
common sense formula:
= c (nothing can go faster than the speed of light).
This means that
at relatively slow speeds (v << c), the denominator practically equals
1, so we find back Newton's formula (reduction). But at high speeds
the denominator increases, making the total speed significantly lower than
what Newton predicted, and limiting even the maximal speed at the speed
of light, c. Newton's formula appears to be a reduction, a simplification
of Einstein's elaborated formula, but at "normal" speeds on earth it was
impossible to discover the inaccuracy of Newton's "simple" formula.
In this short description,
we only treat verbal interaction, i.e. how to integrate things that can
described with words. Experiential communication and integration will be
Up to now no inductive
logic exists. Scientific, as well as daily and artistical creativity occur
at a subconscious level. We become aware of the results of this process,
and we can test and verify, but generally remain unaware of the underlying
process. But this doesn't mean that we are condemned to wait passively
until inspiration comes. There are many factors that
By using them, the probability of getting good ideas increases, and can
reach high levels. Essentially, these techniques consist in providing contrasts
and new associations.
1. Gather differentiated material
Gather as many variants
/ separate contributions as possible. Inventive people often are crosscultural,
or trained in an unusual combination of disciplines.
a) from ourselves (internal inspiration)
- Start with a list
of loose ideas, and then try to structure them. Structuring too early blocks
(oral and written), answering questions from non-professionals
- Use questionnaires
to inspire to different approaches
- Try to predict
what will be explained by a speaker, an article, a book, before listening/reading.
Of course, our ideas will be far from what will be brought (and is often
frustrating), but this contrast is particularly inspiring.
b) from other
people (external inspiration)
- Ask separate people,
independently from each other, to make a draft, give suggestions, formulate
- Going back from
conclusions and generalizations to observations, feelings, examples, illustrations
congresses to gather different views.
- Several, different
proposals for an integration are very inspiring
- Do not avoid challenging
- For psychological
reasons people often hesitate to formulate criticisms. Try to secure them.
a) from ouselves
- If it is a written
text, one starts with something, and tries to integrate the comments
- Always articulate
the text with logical titles. Unstructured texts don't inspire very much.
- Trying to structure
helps finding the essential elements, and often "holes" in the concept
- As the text grows,
it has to be split up in several sections
b) external references
- The availabilty
of a corpus of knowledge inspires. In fact, there is no integrative scinece
without a corpus to refer to. Of course, this corpus will be continuously
updated, but is never to be neglected. Beware of stand-alone theories,
how convincing they seem
Tips while structuring:
- Never believe
in equivalences, albeit our culture advocates tolerance and repect. Evaluating
aspects and behaviour is not labelling or condemning people.
- Very often several
"variants" are developmental stages of one central process
- Lists of four
or more examples or factors usually can be grouped into sub-lists, inspiring
us to see essential factors.