elsewhere the Integration Process, and the Induction Process of which it is the central
procedure, occurs largely at an unconscious level, and science still doesn't
have any operational paradigm at its disposal to perform integrations,
and inductions in general. For this reason, computers can not yet be programmed
to perform inductions, unless in those few and rather "simple" cases where
all possibilities can be mathematically calculated and then one by one
evaluated, e.g. in computer chess playing.
very important process can be enhanced, often up to a very satisfying
level, by a number of techniques, which strengthen the factors which usually
facilitate the spontaneous integration process.
techniques are intellectual tools to enhance the largely unconscious
integration process. They aim at providing our brain with the elements
that, as experience shows, usually enhance the spontaneous integration
Although not entirely
described, the integration process includes several aspects, that can be
stimulated by some auxiliary techniques. Three aspects are aimed to:
As well practical illustrations and variations of the phenomena we're studying are collected,
as a great number of divergent views.
2) Insight stimulation
A maximum of analogies
is collected, and techniques of trying to reformulate and logically restructure
Verbalizing, by spoken
word of wriiting, proves high;ly fertile, much more than just reflecting.
As making integrations
is a blind search, we easily become frustrated and give up. Moreover, as
it often is a creative approach, usually nothing is urgent and nobody is
waiting for our contribution, so, again, it's easy to abandon.
We describe some
significant techniques. They may be combined to increase the creative outcome.
One thing is sure: spontaneous thinking, i.e. without inspiration and without
inspiring structuring, apparently is the poorest form of thinking.
technique aims at collecting diversified experience in the field we are
This is perhaps the most fertile technique, and is applied since centuries.
It appears from the bopgraphy of the most inventive philosophers, scientists
and artists, that they made long voyages to several intersting regions.
In fact, most of ancient Greek philosophers and scientists lived ouside
the Greek continent, in places where they could experience a cross-fertilization.
To describe just two of the most excelling, Hippocrates, Pythagoras and
Archimede: Hippocrates studied the several medical pratices in several place around the Aegaean
and the Black Sea, and finally settled on the Greek Island of Cos, near
nowadays' Turkish coast. He was not only a physician, but a gifted mathematician
as well, another opportunity for crossfertilization. The story of Pythagoras is still more impressive: he passed through Egypt and Babylonia, and finally
ended up in Croton, a Greek colony in the south of Italy. Even Archimedes made a long stay in Alexandria, Egypt, before settling in Syracuse, Sicily.
Jazz music is invented in the States where the rhythmic and improvisational
negro music was crossfertilized with tradityional and classical western
music, rich in harmony but poor in rhythm and improvisation. Also Pierre
Teilhard de Chardin was exiled by his conservative religious superiors,
and after studying in England and teaching in Egypt, he passed much of
his life in China, with expeditions to Africa and Asia, to end up in New
York where he lived the last years of his life.
Study trips, especially if one can have an open contact with the people
really performing the job, is very inspiring. One must have a concrete
image of what competitors are realizing.
one reflects about the ideal education, one could start by reviewing such
diverse educational and pedagogical approaches as scouting and youth movement,
traditional schools, schools abroad, an exclusive elite school, medieval
artistical training, psychotherapy, progressive school curricula (Steiner,
technique consists in collecting as much visions and theories as possible.
Of course, theories are not the same as real experiences, but it helps
us to gather most of important elements and factors linked with the topic
we try to synthesize. It is not cessarily the most eduicated people that
contribute the best ideas. When ons prepares a paper, collecting an unstructured
list of free associations from some unprepared people usually yields many
useful ideas, of course still to elaborate.
In preparing papers, speeches, we can use this technique. Brainstorming is an organized way to do this. And nowadays Internet provides us
with a practically unlimited source of associations.
For some completely
new fields of experience --e.g. heart surgery, aeronautics-- there's no
way to learn form existing experiences, at elast not for the core aspects
of the project.
- collecting situations
where some principles are intuitively applied
- collecting theories/ideas
probably describing aspects of the global process / brainstorming / contrasting
- progressive exploration
from scratch / digressive
it is a blind search, we easily become frustrated. As it is a creative
approach, usually nothing is urgent
- challenge, discussion,